Gibson did not appear at the hearing, which was closed to the public by law.
Deputies flanked Oksana Grigorieva in the courthouse hallways as she passed a handful of reporters anxious for news about the bitter legal fight.
A summary posted outside the courtroom indicated attorneys would argue a motion on whether to seize the passport of the 9-month-old daughter.
It was the first time Gibson, 54, or Grigorieva, 40, appeared in court regarding the case. Attorneys for both declined comment after the daylong hearing.
The ex-couple reached a confidential custody agreement in May, but repeated hearings have been held since the custody case was filed later.
The proceedings have been closely monitored by courthouse officials and deputies. A paparazzo and a reporter for celebrity website RadarOnline.com were escorted from the building Wednesday after shooting photos in the hallway, a violation of courthouse rules.
RadarOnline posted two images of Grigorieva, including one showing her walking in a hallway with her attorney. The images were later removed from the website.
Superior Court spokesman Allan Parachini said a judge did not decide whether to issue civil contempt citations to the reporter and photographer.
An e-mail message seeking comment sent to RadarOnline founder and Executive Vice President David Perel was not immediately returned.
The hearing came as sheriff's detectives were winding down their investigation into allegations that Gibson harmed Grigorieva during an argument in January. The agency was also looking into claims by the actor-director that Grigorieva attempted to extort him.
Detectives have attended one hearing in the case and were given copies of audio recordings filed with the court.
Sheriff's spokesman Steve Whitmore said detectives hope to turn over the results of both investigations to prosecutors by the end of the week.