State Police Sgt. Stephen Jones says Trevor Calhoun wore a mask and pointed a hair brush that appeared to be a gun at the cashier at Bud's Market in Alloway Township in Salem County on Sunday.
Witnesses provided a license plate number and troopers found the 26-year-old at his Quinton Township home with his children.
Calhoun faces robbery, child endangerment and other charges.
The children were turned over to their mother, who was at work during the heist.
It's not clear if Calhoun has hired a lawyer.