Bagakhshan province spokesman Abdul Marouf Rasekh says the militants attacked the outpost Monday night in Wardoj district.
He says the Afghan National Police retook the checkpoint on Tuesday and that a search is under way for the 11 policemen who were kidnapped.
Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid claimed responsibility for the attack.
Separately, the international military coalition says two NATO service members died on Tuesday in the east. One died in a roadside bombing and the other died as a result of a non-battle related injury.