It happened shortly before 1:30 Friday afternoon on the 500 block of Wales Road in Havertown.
Authorities say 26-year-old Gerald R. Moss fired at his wife - hitting her in the shoulder.
The woman was taken to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in critical condition.
Moss turned himself into police at the scene and remains in custody. His charges include attempted homicide and aggravated assault.
No word what sparked the shooting.