Addazio, a Connecticut native, went 13-11 in two seasons with the Owls since taking over for Al Golden in Philadelphia.
Temple is coming off a 4-7 season. In his first season with the Owls, Addazio went 9-4 and won the New Mexico Bowl.
He replaces Frank Spaziani, who was fired after four seasons as head coach and 16 overall at BC. Spaziani went 22-29 with the Eagles.
"Steve Addazio has done a tremendous job with Temple football in his two years at the university, and we wish him nothing but the best," Temple athletic director Bill Bradshaw said. "Temple football has never been stronger, and I am confident we will be able to attract a high-level pool of candidates for the position and the program will continue its upward momentum."
Temple's 37-15 win in New Mexico was the program's first bowl win in 32 years. This season, the schedule increased in difficulty as the Owls left the Mid-American Conference for the Big East. Temple went 2-5 in the league this year.
Addazio, who was on the staff at Florida when the Gators won two BCS national championships in five years, was named Temple's 25th coach Dec. 23, 2010.
Boston College went 2-10 this season, and 1-7 in the ACC.