Mayo and Kaman scored 17 of Dallas' last 19 points to help the Mavericks win their seventh straight at home against the 76ers.
Dorell Wright scored 25 points and Spencer Hawes had 18 for the 76ers, who lost their fourth straight game. Philadelphia point guard Jrue Holiday, the team's leading scorer at nearly 19 points per game, missed his third straight game with a sprained left foot.
Dallas point guard Derek Fisher left the game with 6:50 left in the first quarter with a strained right knee and did not return. Fisher, who wasn't expected to play because of the flu, went down to the ground after having his shot blocked by Evan Turner. The 17th-year guard walked slowly to the locker room.
Dallas' Shawn Marion scored 14 points and grabbed nine rebounds. The forward surpassed 16,000 points in his career, becoming the 95th player in NBA history to top the milestone.
Turner chipped in with 17 points for the 76ers and Thaddeus Young had 12.
Wright hit seven 3-pointers, including four in the final quarter to keep Philadelphia close.
Wright's consecutive 3s brought the 76ers to 96-90 with 2:50 left before Mayo and Kaman squashed the rally. Mayo drove past Hawes on consecutive layups and Kaman hit a bank shot to make it 102-91 with 1:36 remaining.
Wright made two more 3-pointers to make it 102-97 with 30.2 seconds left, but the Mavericks closed it out by hitting 5 of 6 free throws down the stretch.
Dallas was coming off an 0-3 road trip where it committed 65 turnovers. The Mavericks face a rugged schedule the rest of the week with games against Miami, Memphis and San Antonio.
The 76ers kicked off a stretch Tuesday night where they play 10 of 11 on the road. Philadelphia will try to end its slide Wednesday night at Houston.
Neither team led by more than five points in the third quarter.
Wright hit a 3 that put Philadelphia on top 74-71 with 50.7 seconds left in the third.
Mayo tied it with a 3 and hit two free throws to give Dallas the lead heading into the fourth quarter.
Darren Collison, who played 30 minutes in place of Fisher, scored the final five points of the first half to give the Mavericks a 57-52 halftime lead.
Young snuck inside for a tip-in basket off a miss to tie the game at 52 with 59.5 seconds left before halftime. Mavericks coach Rick Carlisle immediately called a timeout and ripped into his team in the huddle.
Collison responded with a 3-pointer and then hit a pair of free throws with 2.7 seconds remaining to put Dallas ahead by five at halftime.
NOTES: There was a moment of silence before the game in tribute to the victims of the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn. . Dallas reserve C Elton Brand (strained right groin) did not play. Brand played three seasons with the 76ers before he was released through the amnesty clause in the offseason. . Philadelphia is 2-7 in December.