The university said the student was taken to an area hospital Monday to be treated for symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed Tuesday morning.
A statement on the university's website said Princeton "is coordinating its response with regional and state health officials, and those who had close contact with the student are being notified so they can receive any needed medical attention."
Experts say the disease is not spread easily through casual contact, but rather through direct exchange of bodily secretions though close personal contact, such as coughing, sharing drinks, kissing and being in close proximity for an extended period.
Symptoms include high fever, headache and stiff neck.
According to the university, state law requires all Princeton students living in dorms to have received the meningitis vaccine, which protects against most strains of the bacteria.
Once diagnosed, the infection is treatable with common antibiotics.