Police arrested Christopher Wheeler on Friday, charging him with 25 counts of child pornography.
Detectives attempted to serve an arrest warrant earlier that week, but the former headmaster could not be located.
Wheeler is being held on $1.5 million cash bail.
A search warrant was first served on Wheeler's home on October 22nd. The school's Board of Trustees confirmed the initial allegations and news that the headmaster had stepped down.
According to the school, the Attorney General's Office arrived to execute search warrants on Wheeler's home and office.
A letter to parents read in part: "The warrants were executed pursuant to a criminal investigation involving allegations of child abuse.
"The State Prosecutor advised that the State has no information at this time that a current Tower Hill student is implicated in the investigation."
Delaware's elite Tower Hill School is known as one of the best private schools in the country, serving grades kindergarten through high school. The school has ties to the du Pont family. Their alumni boasts congressmen and senators, as well as famed Dr. Mehmet Oz.