DeMarre Carroll finished with a career-high 21 points for Atlanta, which has won three of four.
Evan Turner scored 27 points, Tony Wroten had 22 points, and Spencer Hawes finished with 14 points and 12 rebounds for the Sixers, who have lost three of four.
Hawks guard Lou Williams, returning to the court for the first time since undergoing reconstructive right knee surgery 10 months ago, finished with seven points, three rebounds and two assists in 15 minutes.
Williams, in his second season with Atlanta, received a rousing cheer when he entered the game midway through the first quarter.
Atlanta coach Mike Budenholzer said before the game that Williams, who spent his first seven seasons with the Sixers, will not play on consecutive nights. The Hawks visit the New York Knicks on Saturday.
Budenholzer decided to bring forward Paul Millsap, Atlanta's second-leading scorer this season, off the bench, and he finished with eight points. Gustavo Ayon started in his season debut, finishing with six points.
Teague wove through the lane to feed Millsap for a dunk that made it 103-94 with 3:01 left.
The Sixers were without second-leading scorer Michael Carter-Williams because of a bruised arch in his left foot.
Carter-Williams missed his second straight game. The rookie was injured Monday in a home loss to San Antonio and is traveling with the team, but coach Brett Brown said he doubts the former Syracuse standout will play Saturday at New Orleans or Monday at Dallas.
Wroten, a second-year veteran starting in Carter-Williams' spot, has done well in the guard's absence. He had 18 points, 11 rebounds and 10 assists in his first career start, a home win over Houston on Wednesday.
Hawks guard Kyle Korver hit a 3 in his 82nd consecutive game. It's the NBA's second career-leading streak and eight shy of breaking Dana Barros' 17-year-old record.
Korver finished with 13 points.
Thaddeus Young had 17 points for Philadelphia.
The Hawks' biggest lead before halftime was 11 on Williams' 3 in the final seconds of the first quarter, but Philadelphia had a two-point lead at intermission after Darius Morris hit a 3 with 2.5 seconds left and Carroll hit a 3 at the buzzer.
Williams' 8-foot runner lifted Atlanta to an 82-71 lead with 31.1 seconds left in the third.
Philadelphia came within four on Hollis Thompson's dunk early in the fourth, but Brown called timeout with 7:39 remaining after Ayon caught Teague's alley-oop for a layup that made it 90-79.
NOTES: Teague's previous career high was 28 points last Jan. 16 at Brooklyn. ... Carroll set a career high with four 3s. ... Barros set the NBA mark by hitting a 3 in 89 straight games from Dec. 23, 1994-Jan. 12, 1996, during stints with Philadelphia and Boston. ... Budenholzer and Brown, both first-year head coaches, know each other well. Budenholzer spent the previous 17 years and Brown the last 11 on San Antonio's staff. ... There were 10 lead changes and nine ties.