Carter-Williams had 27 points, 12 rebounds and 10 assists for Philadelphia, and Oladipo had 26 points, 10 rebounds and 10 assists for Orlando, the first time two rookies had a triple-double in the same game.
After 58 minutes of hoops, Carter-Williams had the only stat that truly mattered - the win.
Carter-Williams had his first career triple-double, and Thaddeus Young added 25 points and 12 rebounds to lead the 76ers past the Magic 126-125 in double-overtime on Tuesday night.
Carter-Williams got his 10th assist on a dish to Young late in the second OT to put the Sixers up 125-120.
"It's not me versus Oladipo," Carter-Williams said. "It's Sixers versus Orlando. It's a team game. I just wanted to get the win."
Evan Turner had 24 points for Philadelphia, which snapped a four-game losing streak. James Anderson added 19 points and Spencer Hawes 17.
Arron Afflalo scored a career-high 43 points for the Magic and Glen Davis had a career-high 33.
"I'm upset we lost, but under the circumstances of how we were able to stay in the game, I'm proud of the guys," Afflalo said.
Turner was whistled for his fifth foul with 12.1 seconds left in the first OT on Afflalo's 3-point attempt. Afflalo made all three free throws, tying the score at 118. The Magic fell behind early in the second overtime and the Sixers held on from the free-throw line.
The Magic, coming off a 98-80 loss at Washington on Monday night, played without Nik Vucevic (14.7 ppg, 10.9 rpg) because of a sprained left ankle and point guard Jameer Nelson (sprained left foot).
Davis stunned the Sixers with his first 3-pointer of the season, nailing it from the top of the key to tie the score at 104-all with 18 seconds left in the fourth quarter. He was 6 for 40 in his career on 3s and hadn't made one since the 2011-12 season.
"He loves playing, he loves competing, he loves to win," coach Jacque Vaughn said. "I'm going to spring for some ice for the ice bath and cool him down for two days from now."
Afflalo sparked a rally earlier in the quarter, capping a 9-0 run with a jumper that gave the Magic a 98-96 lead with 2:45 left. After the Sixers grabbed a four-point lead, Afflalo buried his fourth 3 to make it a one-point game. Young scored for the Sixers, then Davis connected in the clutch.
The Sixers stil had a huge edge beyond the arc, making 11 of 29. The Magic missed 20 of 26.
"We pulled it out, and that's huge," Turner said. "The experience is great. Both sides have young teams. I'm just glad we were able to come out on top. It was crazy."
Carter-Williams' first 3 of the game in the third made it 83-72, getting a rise out of the roughly 10,000 fans who turned out for this one.
Carter-Williams was named Eastern Conference rookie of the month before the game, the first Sixers rookie to win the award since Allen Iverson in April 1997. Carter-Williams, the 11th overall pick of the draft, had already scored 20-plus points five times this season and helped the Sixers beat Miami, Washington and Chicago to open the season. He made 11 of 19 shots and chipped in three steals with a banged-up right knee against the Magic.
The Sixers (7-12) have cooled considerably since their surprising start, but first-year coach Brett Brown has them playing hard and playing smart. As the NBA season tipped off, the over-under out of Las Vegas for total wins for the 76ers this year was 16.5, the lowest of any team in the league.
They should top that - and Carter-Williams is a big reason why the Sixers are somehow in the playoff mix.
"We all played great," Carter-Williams said.
Of course, an Atlantic Division littered with bad basketball and underachievers also has the Sixers in the hunt. None of the five teams in the division have a winning record.
The Magic's record would have them chasing first in the Atlantic instead of dumping them in last in the Southeast Division, well behind Miami.
Afflalo was 14 of 27 from the field, made five of Orlando's six 3s, and was 10 of 11 from the free-throw line.
"It's was a long game and, to lose by a point, that was a tough," Afflalo said.
NOTES: Orlando played the second game of a six-game road trip. ... Carter-Williams had Philadelphia's first triple-double since Andre Iguodala on March 23, 2005. ... Orlando's starters scored all but nine points. ... There were 23 lead changes and 16 ties.