The agency says anglers accidentally harvest the pallid sturgeon when they're seeking the more plentiful shovelnose sturgeon, which is valued for its roe, sold as caviar.
Fewer than 40 commercial harvesters are expected to be affected if the listing is approved. USFWS estimates pallid sturgeon mortality is three times higher in areas where shovelnose sturgeon are commercially harvested.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is taking comments through Nov. 23.