The Indonesian suspect was caught Friday as he offloaded the exotic marsupials at the East Java provincial capital of Surabaya, said Police Maj. Widarmanto, who like many Indonesians goes by one name. Five of kangaroos had died.
The five surviving kangaroos - of a small, rain forest-dwelling variety - were given to a Surabaya animal sanctuary, Widarmanto said.
Illegal trade in rare and exotic animals is rampant in Indonesia, where law enforcement is generally poor.
The suspect, who has not been named, faces up to five years in jail and a 100 million rupiah ($11,000) fine for violating Indonesian conservation laws.
Kangaroos are native only to Australia and New Guinea, which is divided into Indonesia's easternmost province of Papua and the country of Papua New Guinea.