The divorce came less than a week after the "Two and a Half Men" star was briefly hospitalized in New York City after security at a luxury hotel reported he was being disorderly.
Sheen cited irreconcilable differences for the divorce and indicated in court filings in Los Angeles that the couple have a prenuptial agreement. He and Brooke Mueller Sheen were married in May 2008 and have twin sons together.
He is seeking joint custody, but is asking a judge not to award his wife any spousal support.
The divorce was first reported Monday by People magazine's website.
Sheen, 45, pleaded guilty in Aspen, Colo., in August to misdemeanor third-degree assault after a Christmas Day altercation with Mueller Sheen. He listed the couple's separation date as the date of the fight.
Prosecutors dropped more serious charges and he avoided jail time, instead receiving 30 days in a rehabilitation center, 30 days of probation and 36 hours of anger management.
Mueller Sheen told police the actor threatened to kill her and brandished a knife after she told him she wanted a divorce. Charlie Sheen said the two argued, but he denied threatening her and told police he was upset by the divorce threat.
Last Tuesday, the actor was hospitalized after security at the Plaza Hotel in New York City reported he was disorderly and had broken furniture in his room.
Sheen appeared highly intoxicated when officers arrived at his room around 1:30 a.m., and a woman with him said they had been out drinking and partying that night, according to a law enforcement official.
The woman said Sheen was yelling and tossing furniture when they returned to the room, said the official, who was not authorized to speak publicly about the encounter and spoke to The Associated Press on condition of anonymity.
Sheen's publicist, Stan Rosenfield, said the actor had an adverse reaction to medication. Sheen was released from the hospital the same day.
Sheen is on a family vacation with ex-wife Denise Richards and the former couple's two children. Their divorce was highly contentious at first but resolved amicably in 2006.
Associated Press Writer Colleen Long contributed to this report.