The recall covers certain diesel versions of the 2011 E Class sedan and 2011 GL Class, M Class and R Class SUVs and crossover vehicles. The vehicles included in the recall were built from November 2009 through October 2010.
The automaker said a lack of lubrication in the diesel engine fuel filters could cause the filters to leak.
Fuel could leak onto the road, causing slippery conditions and a potential crash.
Mercedes-Benz USA spokesman Rob Moran said the automaker was not aware of any injuries connected with the recall.
Owners will be notified later this month. Dealers will replace the fuel filter free of charge.