Longoria filed papers Wednesday morning in Los Angeles Superior Court. She and Parker, the All-Star point guard for the San Antonio Spurs, were married July 7, 2007. They have no children together.
In the filing, Longoria, who had taken Parker's name, requested that her name be restored to Eva Jacqueline Longoria. The filing also stated that the couple had a prenuptial agreement.
Longoria asked the court to require each side pay its own attorneys' fees, and rule that she should not have to pay spousal support to Parker.
Longoria's spokeswoman, Liza Anderson, said the actress had no comment. Parker, 28, wasn't immediately available for comment.
Longoria, 35, is best known for her role on ABC's "Desperate Housewives."