The outspoken Chaput didn't shy away from veiled references to the church's woes, chief among them in Philadelphia the clergy sex-abuse crisis.
Chaput says Catholics should not be "defined by critics or those who dislike us."
The 66-year-old Chaput is known as a conservative leader, devoted to evangelism and outspoken about his disapproval of "cafeteria Catholics" and Catholic politicians who support abortion rights.
In a lighter moment in his homily, the new arrival from Denver likened his Philadelphia post to "an arranged marriage" - with the pope as matchmaker.
But he said arranged marriages work if people get to know and love each other.