Friedrich (5-6) got the best of Cliff Lee (1-6) in his first career appearance against the Phillies, who have lost five straight and 11 of their past 12 games.
In winning for the first time in more than a month, Friedrich allowed one run and five hits, struck out seven and walked one.
Lee, who got his only win of the season in his previous start July 4 against the New York Mets, allowed three runs - two earned - and nine hits in six innings.
Philadelphia fell to 4-11 in Lee's starts this season after going 22-10 in his 32 starts a year ago.
Rutledge, an infielder recalled from Double-A Tulsa as part of a series of moves that included placing star first baseman Todd Helton on the 15-day disabled list with a hip injury, broke a 1-1 tie in the sixth when he drove in his second run of the game with a sacrifice fly.
Pinch hitter Eric Young Jr., batting for Friedrich, followed with a run-scoring single to give the Rockies a 3-1 lead.
Colorado broke the game open in the seventh, when it added three runs off reliever Michael Schwimer.
Ramon Hernandez, activated from the disabled list earlier Friday, singled to score Carlos Gonzalez, who had three hits.
Michael Cuddyer, an outfielder who made a rare start at first in place of the injured Helton, followed with a run-scoring triple. Cuddyer scored when catcher Carlos Ruiz threw wildly on an attempted pickoff for an error.
Rutledge, who also made several nifty plays at shortstop, got his first big league hit and first career RBI off Lee in the second when he hit a double to center that scored Cuddyer, who doubled earlier in the inning.
The Phillies evened the score at 1-1 in the third on Jimmy Rollins' run-scoring double. Rollins tripled and scored in the eighth on Chase Utley's sacrifice fly.
NOTES: Phillies pitcher Roy Halladay, on the disabled list since late May because of a muscle strain on his right side, was scheduled to throw a bullpen session Saturday after making a successful rehab start Thursday for Single A Clearwater. ... LHP Raul Valdes went on the 15-day DL with a right hip strain, and the Phillies recalled LHP Joe Savery from Triple-A Lehigh Valley to fill his roster spot. ... The Rockies also placed C Wil Nieves on the DL with turf toe in his right foot and optioned reliever Tyler Chatwood to Double-A Tulsa in addition to recalling RHP Mike Ekstrom from Triple-A Colorado Springs. ... Hernandez missed 42 games while on the DL recovering from a left hand injury. ... The Phillies are one loss away from matching a season-high six-game losing streak. ... Friedrich's last win was on June 4 at Arizona. ... Philadelphia lost for just the third time in its past 13 games at Coors Field.