After hitting the first pitch of the game to the warning track, Rollins homered in the third inning and again in the fifth. Both drives went into the seats in right field, unlike his inside-the-park homer on Tuesday night.
Rollins and Schierholtz homered on successive pitches in the fifth against Edwin Jackson (6-7) to give Philadelphia a 3-2 lead. One day after being traded by San Francisco in the deal that sent Hunter Pence to the Giants, Schierholtz started in right field and went 2 for 5.
Worley (6-6) gave up two runs, none earned, and six hits in seven innings. The right-hander walked one, didn't get a strikeout for the first time this season but limited Washington to two singles after the second inning.
Newcomer Josh Lindblom entered in relief with one out in the eighth and gave up a single to pinch-hitter Ryan Zimmerman before striking out Michael Morse. Lindblom came over in Tuesday's trade that sent Shane Victorino to the Los Angeles Dodgers
Jonathan Papelbon, the fourth Philadelphia reliever, worked the ninth for his 23rd save.
It was the second straight win for the last-place Phillies over the NL East-leading Nationals, and in each game Philadelphia did not permit an earned run. Cole Hamels (11-5) will take the mound Thursday night for the Phillies, who will seek to complete a three-game sweep.
Washington took advantage of poor fielding by the Phillies to score two unearned runs in the first inning. After third baseman Kevin Frandsen misplayed a grounder to load the bases with one out, Adam LaRoche singled in a run. Danny Espinoza then hit a potential double-play grounder to second baseman Chase Utley, who botched the underhand throw and barely got the forceout at second as a run scored.
The Nationals missed a chance to add to their lead in the second when Jackson was thrown out at the plate trying to score from second on a two-out single by Bryce Harper.
Erik Kratz led off the third with Philadelphia's first hit, a single, and Worley bunted into a double play while trying to sacrifice. Rollins followed with drive to right on a 3-1 pitch, and Schierholtz and Utley singled before Ryan Howard struck out.
NOTES: The seven innings tied Worley's longest outing of the season. It was the first time he went seven innings in seven starts since June 21. ... Zimmerman missed a second start with a sore back, but is expected to return to the lineup Thursday. ... The Nationals are talking playoffs. Sort of. The team announced Wednesday that fans who place a deposit on full season ticket plans in 2013 will receive 2012 postseason ticket purchase priority. ... Ross Detwiler starts for the Nationals in the series finale.