McClure replaces Rich Dubee, who was let go after the season ended. The former major league left-hander was the pitching coach for Boston in 2012 and Kansas City from 2006-11.
Manager Ryne Sandberg says "Bob brings a wealth of experience to our staff."
The Phillies also announced Thursday that Rod Nichols will remain as the bullpen coach and Jesus Tiamo will return as the bullpen catcher.
The 61-year-old McClure pitched 19 years in the big leagues from 1975-93. He was 68-57 with 52 saves and a 3.81 ERA for seven teams. McClure was a member of the 1982 American League champion Milwaukee Brewers, and had two saves in the World Series.