The physician, who hasn't been identified, was last at the hospital on March 11 when he started to feel sick.
The infection was not acquired in the hospital.
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The hospital is now notifying all patients and their families who may have been impacted by the exposure.
In addition, the ICU is now closed to new admissions and the Level 1 trauma department is closed.
ICU staff will now wear additional protective gear and children in the ICU unit will not be transferred out.
A total of 8 positive COVID-19 cases have been confirmed in Philadelphia to date.
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This now the second case of a doctor in the region potentially exposing patients to the virus.
Last week, Montgomery County official announced a doctor from the Children Hospital of Philadelphia outpatient care center in King of Prussia exposed more than a dozen patients.
That prompted a series of closures around the area and specialized cleanings.
"In total, the physician cared for approximately two dozen patients directly and came into contact with 17 staff members. We have provided instruction to all potentially exposed individuals to self-quarantine in accordance with CDC and Pennsylvania Department of Health guidelinee," said a spokesperson with Children's Hospital of Philadelphia last week.