Jordan had served two games of his four-game suspension for violating the policy on performance-enhancing drugs, which was lifted this week under the new agreement between the NFL and NFL Players Association.
However, this latest violation means Jordan cannot return to the team until Oct. 20. He will miss six games total.
"I am currently undergoing treatment to address my situation," Jordan said in a statement. "I am working hard to become a better man and to make better choices in the future. I am especially looking forward to returning to the team. I also want to thank my family, Coach [Joe] Philbin and the Miami Dolphins organization for their support."
This is another roadblock for Jordan, who struggled with injuries during his rookie year and now has back-to-back suspensions in his second season.
"While we were disappointed to learn of this result, we support Dion for proactively taking steps to voluntarily seek treatment to better himself," Philbin said. "We will continue to support and work with him as he takes advantage of all available resources during this time."
The Dolphins (1-1) will host the Kansas City Chiefs (0-2) on Sunday.
Second Ban For Dolphins' Jordan
ESPN Dolphins reporter James Walker breaks down Dolphins defensive end Dion Jordan being suspended four games Friday for violating the NFL's policy on substance abuse.