The agency says its order affects 352 engines in the U.S. and another 681 worldwide on "new generation" Boeing 737 jets. Each aircraft has two engines.
The requirement from the agency comes after the engine maker, CFM International, issued a service bulletin recommending that more engines be inspected.
At issue are the engine fan blades on Boeing 737-600, 700, 800 and 900 jets.
The National Transportation Safety Board believes one of the blades snapped on the Southwest flight Tuesday, hurling debris that broke a window and led to the death of a passenger who was sucked partway out of the plane. The jet, which was headed from New York to Dallas, made an emergency landing in Philadelphia.
The CFM 56-7B engines are on about 1,800 "new generation" 737s in service in the U.S. and about 6,400 worldwide.
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