Slick shortstop Jimmy Rollins joined Victorino from the Phillies, winning for the second consecutive season. The New York Mets also had two winners: outfielder Carlos Beltran and third baseman David Wright, both of whom repeated.
Other first-time honorees for defensive excellence were St. Louis catcher Yadier Molina, San Diego first baseman Adrian Gonzalez, Cincinnati second baseman Brandon Phillips and Pittsburgh outfielder Nate McLouth.
The Houston Astros, who committed 16 fewer errors than any other major league team, did not have a winner.
Rawlings has presented Gold Gloves annually since 1957. Managers and coaches vote on players in their own leagues before the regular season ends, but they may not select members of their own teams.
American League winners will be announced Thursday.
Pondering retirement after 355 wins, Maddux has been the NL recipient for pitchers every year since 1990 with the exception of 2003, when Mike Hampton interrupted the streak.
Last year with the Padres, Maddux snapped a tie with third baseman Brooks Robinson and pitcher Jim Kaat for the most Gold Gloves.
Maddux spent most of this season in San Diego before an Aug. 19 trade to the Los Angeles Dodgers. He struggled in seven starts down the stretch for the NL West champions, going 2-4 with a 5.09 ERA to finish the year 8-13 with a 4.22 mark overall.
The four-time Cy Young Award winner may have lost a yard on that pinpoint, tailing fastball, but his reflexes are still quick as a cat's on the mound. At 6 feet, 170 pounds, his simple windup has always left him in perfect fielding position after each pitch.
Maddux worked four innings out of the bullpen during the playoffs and the Dodgers were eliminated by Philadelphia in the NL championship series. He filed for free agency after the World Series.
Victorino moved from right field to center this season to replace Aaron Rowand, a 2007 Gold Glove winner for Philadelphia before signing with the San Francisco Giants.
McLouth's award capped a breakout season for the 25th-round draft pick in his first year as a full-time starter. A bright spot for the last-place Pirates, he showed off his strong arm in the July All-Star game at Yankee Stadium by throwing out a runner at the plate to keep the score tied in the 11th inning.
All three NL outfield Gold Gloves went to center fielders.