Both are among the 13 new candidates appearing on the 2022 National Baseball Hall of Fame ballot.
The ballots are being mailed this week to approximately 400 voting members of the Baseball Writers' Association of America.
Howard is one of only four players, along with Cal Ripken Jr., Dustin Pedroia and Kris Bryant, to win an MVP Award the year after having won the Jackie Robinson Rookie of the Year Award.
Howard's victories came in 2005 (Rookie) and 2006 (MVP) in a 13-year career, all with the Philadelphia Phillies.
The slugging first baseman had major-league-leading totals in home runs (58), RBI (149) and total bases (383) in his MVP season.
Howard also led the National League in homers (48) and RBI (146) in 2008, the Phillies' World Series championship season.
He followed that with a 45-homer, 141-RBI season in 2009 and was the MVP of the NL Championship Series.
The three-time All-Star is one of only 13 players in big league history with at least three 140-RBI seasons.
Rollins, Howard's teammate on the 2008 World Series champion Phillies, took MVP honors the previous season after batting .296 with 212 hits, including 30 home runs, and league-leading figures in runs (139) and triples (20).
In a 17-season career that also included time with the Los Angeles Dodgers and Chicago White Sox, Rollins amassed 2,455 hits and 470 stolen bases.
He led the NL in triples and at-bats four times each and runs and stolen bases once each.
Among players who appeared in at least half their games at shortstop, Rollins is the only one in history with at least 500 doubles, 400 steals and 200 homers.
Howard and Rollins will be joined by infielders Álex Rodríguez, Justin Morneau; pitchers Tim Lincecum and Jake Peavy; DH-first baseman David Ortiz; relief pitchers Joe Nathan and former Phillie Jonathan Papelbon; first basemen Prince Fielder and Mark Teixeira; catcher A.J. Pierzynski; and outfielder Carl Crawford.
The ballot also includes 17 holdovers from the 2021 balloting which failed to produce a new Hall of Famer. Names include former Phillies Bobby Abreu, Scott Rolen, Curt Schilling and Billy Wagner.
Candidates must be named on 75 percent of ballots cast by selected BBWAA members with 10 or more consecutive years of MLB coverage to gain election and be part of Induction Weekend July 22-25, 2022, in Cooperstown, N.Y.
Results will be announced by Hall of Fame president Josh Rawitch at 6 p.m. on Jan. 25, 2022 on MLB Network.