The fire at Greater Bible Way Temple in the city's Parkside section was reported shortly before 3 p.m. Tuesday.
Flames shot through the roof of the 115-year-old structure as hoses poured water onto the structure from several different directions Tuesday afternoon.
Philadelphia Fire Commissioner Adam Thiel says at least one person was transported to an area hospital for unknown injuries.
Firefighters remained on the scene into Wednesday morning dousing hotspots.
Drone footage shows the massive structural damage incurred in the blaze.
There was no immediate word on a possible cause for the fire.