Manager John Farrell said X-rays to Pedroia's hand came back negative, and an MRI taken later showed no structural damage.
Jonathan Herrera started in Pedroia's place.
Farrell did not rule out Pedroia being available Saturday night.
"We'll have a better read once we the get the results of the MRI back," Farrell said before the game. "Hopefully, this is just a day-to-day situation."
Pedroia is batting .275 with a .349 on-base percentage with two home runs and 17 RBIs while playing in 53 games.
Also Saturday, the Red Sox called up right-hander Rubby De La Rosa from Triple-A Pawtucket, and he started against the Rays, pitching seven scoreless innings, allowing four hits and striking out eight without issuing a walk.
Outfielder Daniel Nava was optioned back to Pawtucket in a corresponding move. Nava has hit at a .130 clip in 22 games for the Red Sox this season. While with the PawSox, he hit .253 with three home runs and 14 RBIs.
Red Sox Win Sixth Straight
Rubby De La Rosa struck out eight batters over seven innings to lead the Red Sox past the Rays 7-1.