According to the charges, Spc. William Colton Millay of Owensboro, Ky., intended to aid a foreign nation.
Millay, 22, also is charged with communicating defense information, issuing false statements, failing to obey regulations and soliciting a fellow service member to get classified material.
Army officials said Millay was being observed before any damage could have occurred.
His attorney has said his client told him he is innocent.
Steve Karns, of Dallas, said last week he spoke with Spc. William Colton Millay of Owensboro, Ky., by phone and his client came across as a simple country boy who "seems like a really good kid."
"He doesn't sound like he has a malicious bone in his body or malevolent intent," Karns said.
Millay, a military police officer, is charged through the military justice system.
Officials have said there is no connection with the case involving Army analyst Bradley Manning, who is suspected of disclosing secret intelligence to WikiLeaks.
Millay's Oct. 28 arrest at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson in Anchorage stems from an investigation by the Army and FBI. He is assigned to the 164th Military Police Company. Most company members were deployed Afghanistan in March, but Millay was in the company's rear detachment that stayed behind.
Since his arrest, Millay has been in custody without bail at the Anchorage Correctional Complex.