The first type is ambient, lighting. This is the type that fills the whole room with a general soft light. Ceiling fixtures, recessed lights and chandeliers are all types of ambient lighting, all will allow you to get around the room and perform general tasks.
The next type of lighting that you need in any room is task lighting. This will give you more directed lighting that will allow you to do specialized tasks like working on the computer, reading, cooking and crafting.
These lights will generally be closer to where you're working and direct light toward what you're working on.
Examples of these would be a floor lamp placed near a chair, a desk lamp or undercabinet lighting that lights the countertop where you're working.
The final type is decorative lighting. These light up the pretty things in your home. Think of inside cabinet lighting, a small lamp on a hallway table or an art light above a painting.
Paying attention to each of these types of lighting will help you complete a lighting scheme for your home. I'm Mrs. Fixit and it's just that simple!