Paul Pierce led Boston with 27 points, including a game-tying 3-pointer early in the 14-3 spurt. Kevin Garnett had 19 points and Ray Allen 18. Rondo finished with 10 points and seven assists.
Andre Iguodala paced the undermanned 76ers with 25 points, nine rebounds and nine assists. Jason Kapono had a season-high 20 points on 8 of 11 shooting off the bench. Willie Green added 18 points.
Philadelphia, which lost its sixth consecutive game against Boston over the past two seasons, has lost three straight overall.
Boston trailed 87-84 before Pierce tied it with a 3-pointer from the right corner with just over 10 minutes to play. On Boston's next possession, Rasheed Wallace nailed a 3 from the left wing, moving the Celtics ahead for good. Boston had been just 5 for 22 from beyond the arc before the consecutive 3s.
Rondo then took over, scoring three baskets. The 6-foot-1 point guard drove for two of his baskets; the other came off a drive on a goaltending call. He also set up Marquis Daniels for a layup, making it 98-90 with 7:09 to play.
The 76ers closed to 107-105 on Iguodala's two free throws with 1:18 to play. But he was called for an offensive foul attempting to drive against Pierce, before Rondo made a fallaway jumper with 9.6 seconds left.
Iguodala hit a 3 with 4 seconds left, but Allen and Eddie House each hit two free throws in the closing 3.3 seconds.
Boston was just 7 for 27 from behind the 3-point line.
Playing on consecutive nights, the 76ers didn't show any wear, outhustling the Celtics to take a lead into the final quarter. Philadelphia, which relied on a rebounding edge and strong shooting from beyond the arc, led 85-79 after three.
The 76ers finished 13 of 20 from 3-point range.
The 76ers were without a pair of starters. Guard Lou Williams broke his jaw in Tuesday night's loss against Washington and will be evaluated Thursday before coach Eddie Jordan can say how long he'll be sidelined. Forward Elton Brand was out with a sore right hamstring.
Referee Joe Crawford whistled three technicals in the third quarter: Garnett, and Philadelphia's Thaddeus Young and Samuel Dalembert.
NOTES: The 76ers are in a stretch of seven of eight on the road, with their only home game Friday against the Atlanta Hawks. ... Boston coach Doc Rivers was planning to fly home to Orlando on a private charter after the game to celebrate Thanksgiving Day. "It's great," he said before the game, discussing the free time on the plane. "It's like five hours away from everyone. No one knocking on your office door, no `you need to sign this or see this person' just five hours of game prep time." ... Wallace hit a 3-pointer late in the first quarter, halting a string of 14 consecutive misses from beyond the arc.