Cass County authorities said that Matthew Scroggs of Pleasant Hill was charged Thursday with abandonment of a corpse and tampering with a vehicle.
Police had received a tip about the baby before they went to Scroggs' home in November to investigate reports of drugs and a stolen car.
Officers saw the bucket in the garage during a search for the drugs.
A probable cause statement says Scroggs told investigators that he put the boy's body in a bucket and filled it with concrete after the child was stillborn in October of 2013.
The results of an autopsy are pending.